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Titanium Alloy Knowledge
Dec 19, 2017

Titanium Alloy Knowledge

Mar 19, 2018

Alloying elements can be classified into three categories based on their influence on the phase transition temperature:

1 An element that stabilizes the α phase and raises the phase transition temperature is an α-stable element, which includes aluminum, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. Among them, aluminum is the main alloying element of titanium alloy. It has obvious effects on increasing the strength of the alloy at room temperature and high temperature, decreasing the specific gravity and increasing the elastic modulus.

2 The element that stabilizes the β-phase and reduces the phase transition temperature is the β-stabilizing element, which can be divided into two types: isomorphous and eutectoid. The former include molybdenum, niobium, and vanadium; the latter include chromium, manganese, copper, iron, and silicon.

3 The elements that have little effect on the phase transition temperature are neutral elements such as zirconium and tin.

Oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and hydrogen are the main impurities of titanium alloys. Oxygen and nitrogen have greater solubility in the α phase, which has a significant strengthening effect on the titanium alloy, but it decreases the plasticity. It is generally specified that the oxygen and nitrogen contents of titanium are respectively 0.15 to 0.2% and 0.04 to 0.05%. The solubility of hydrogen in the alpha phase is very small, and too much dissolved hydrogen in the titanium alloy will produce hydrides, making the alloy brittle. Generally, the hydrogen content in the titanium alloy is controlled below 0.015%. The dissolution of hydrogen in titanium is reversible and can be removed by vacuum annealing.


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